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Performance considerations for keySet() and entrySet() of Map

Can anyone please let me know exactly what are the performance issues between the 2? The site :CodeRanch provides a brief overview of the internal calls that would be needed when using keySet() and get(). But it would be great if anyone can provide exact details about the flow when keySet() and get() methods are used. This would help me understand the performance issues better.

The most common case where using entrySet is preferable over keySet is when you are iterating through all of the key/value pairs in a Map.

This is more efficient:

for (Map.Entry entry : map.entrySet()) {

    Object key = entry.getKey();

    Object value = entry.getValue();



for (Object key : map.keySet()) {

    Object value = map.get(key);


Because in the second case, for every key in the keySet the map.get() method is called, which - in the case of a HashMap - requires that the hashCode() and equals() methods of the key object be evaluated in order to find the associated value*. In the first case that extra work is eliminated.

Edit: This is even worse if you consider a TreeMap, where a call to get is O(log2(n)), i.e. the comparator for will may need to run log2(n) times (n = size of the Map) before finding the associated value.

*Some Map implementations have internal optimisations that check the objects' identity before the hashCode() and equals() are called.

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